Comment about the weather.
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The central part of the southern half of the island is mountainous with heights more than 2.5 Km. The core regions of the central highlands contain many complex topographical features such as ridges, peaks, plateaus, basins, valleys, and escarpments. The remainder of the island is practically flat except for several small hills that rise abruptly in the lowlands. These topographical features strongly affect the spatial patterns of winds, seasonal rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and other climatic elements, particularly during the monsoon season.
Due to the location of Sri Lanka, within the tropics between 5° 55′ to 9° 51′ North latitude and between 79° 42′ to 81° 53′ East longitude, the climate of the island could be characterized as tropical.
Rainfall in Sri Lanka has multiple origins. Monsoonal, Convectional and depression rain accounts for a major share of the annual rainfall. The mean annual rainfall varies from under 900 mm in the driest parts ( Southeastern and Northwestern) to over 5000 mm in the wettest parts ( Western slopes of the central highlands
Regional differences observed in air temperature over Sri Lanka are mainly due to altitude, rather than latitude. The mean monthly temperatures differ slightly depending on the seasonal movement of the sun, with some modified influence caused by rainfall. The mean annual temperature in Sri Lanka manifests largely homogeneous temperatures in the low lands and rapidly decreasing temperatures in the highlands. In the lowlands, up to an altitude of 100 m to 150 m, the mean annual temperature various between 26.5 °C to 28.5 °C, with an annual temperature of 27.5 °C. In the highlands, the temperature falls quickly as the altitude increases. The mean annual temperature of Nuwara-Eliya, at 1800 m sea level, is 15.9 °C. The coldest month with respect to mean monthly temperature is generally January, and the warmest months are April and August. The mean annual temperature varies from 27°C in the coastal lowlands to 16°C at Nuwara-Eliya, in the central highlands (1900m above mean sea level). This relatively unique feature manifesting as sunny beaches to rain forests inland is a tourist attraction.
The weather that Sri Lanka experiences could be broadly divided into monsoonal and inter monsoonal. The rainfall pattern is influenced by the monsoon winds of the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal and is marked by four seasons
The first inter- monsoon is from March to April
with light, variable winds and evening thundershowers. The distribution of rainfall during this period shows that the entire South-western sector at the hill country receiving 250 mm of rainfall, with the localized areas on the South-western slops experiencing rainfall in excess of 700 mm (Keragala 771 mm). Over most parts of the island, the amount of rainfall various between 100 and 250 mm, the notable exception being the Northern Jaffna Peninsula (Jaffna- 78 mm, Elephant pass- 83 mm).
The summer monsoon or Southwest monsoon is from May to September
When winds originate in the southwest, bringing moisture from the Indian ocean. When these winds encounter the slopes of the Central Highlands, they unload heavy rains on the mountain slopes and the southwestern sector of the island. Some of the windward slopes receive up to 2,500 mm (98.4 in) of rain per month, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. Windy weather during this monsoon eases off the warmth that prevailed during the 1st Inter monsoon season. Southwest monsoon rains are experienced at any time of the day and night, some times intermittently mainly in the Southwestern part of the country. The amount of rainfall during this season varies from about 100 mm to over 3000 mm. The highest rainfall received in the mid-elevations of the western slops (Ginigathhena- 3267 mm, Watawala- 3252 mm, Norton- 3121 mm). Rainfall decreases rapidly from these maximum regions towards the higher elevation, and in Nuwara-Eliya drops to 853 mm. The variation towards the Southwestern coastal area is less rapid, with the Southwestern coastal belt experiencing between 1000 mm to 1600 mm of rain during this 5-month long period. The lowest figures are recorded from Northern and Southeastern regions.
During the third season (2nd inter monsoon) October and November
months are also experience with light, variable winds, and evening thundershowers. During this season, periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island.
The winter monsoon or northeast monsoon is experienced over the Island from December to February
Monsoonal winds come from the Northeast, bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The Northeastern slopes of the mountains may be inundated with up to 1,250 mm (49.2 in) of rain during these months.